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  1. War, Violence and Terror 3 items
    1. Aims: This module introduces students to historical, philosophical and political approaches to the study of war, violence and terror. It aims to (1) to conceptualise war, violence and terror, (2) to explore the experience of warfare in the twentieth century, (3) to consider the place of violence in human society and politics.


      Assessment: (See the Student Handbook for full details)

       

      a.    Weekly seminar attendance, participation and one presentation. You are expected to enter the seminars with points (written down) which refer to the different readings. These points may be collected at the start of the seminar, and used to structure discussions.

      b.    One 1500 word essay.


      Students are expected to attend pre-essay tutorials to develop a question in conjunction with their tutor. Please see below for a list of indicative questions.


    2. Block 1: War and Violence in Social Theory

    3. Indicative reading for Block 1:

      Hannah Arendt On Violence

      Richard Bernstein Violence: Thinking Without Banisters

      Nigel Biggar In Defence of War

      Joanna Bourke Pain

      Adriana Cavarero Horrorism

      Clausewitz On War

      Christopher Coker Barbarous Philosophers: Reflections on the Nature of War from Heraclitus to Heisenberg

      James Dodd Violence and phenomenology

      Brad Evans & Terrell Carver (eds.) Histories of Violence: Post-War Critical Thought

      Frantz Fanon The Wretched of the Earth

      Henry Giroux 'Hiroshima and the Responsibility of Intellectuals' Thesis Eleven, Vol 129, No 1 (2015), pp. 103-118

      Christopher Kutz On War and Democracy

      Plato The Republic

      G Reichberg, H. Syse, E. Begby (eds.) The Ethics of War

      Elaine Scarry The Body in Pain

      Michael Schapiro 'Hiroshima Temporalities' Thesis Eleven, Vol 129, No 1 (2015), pp. 40-56

       

      *Case Studies: each week there is a set case study. Indicative readings are included for each week below but, as an alternative, students can bring in one article that relates to the case study from one of the following: a topical magazine (eg London Review of Books, The Economist, The New Statesman); a newspaper; a journal article; or a book chapter

  2. 01: Thrasymachus and Plato, War and Justice 13 items
    1. Seminar Questions:

       

       Are war and justice mutually exclusive?

       

      What are the repercussions of accepting Thrasymachus' position?

       

      Is reason just another form of violence?

       

      Is there any place for idealism in warfare? What are the implications of your response?

       

       

       

    2. Key Reading: 1 item
      1. The Republic - Henry Desmond Pritchard Lee, M. S. Lane, Plato 2007

        Book Key Copies in the library, but also available online at: http://classics.mit.edu/Plato/republic.2.i.html

    3. Case Study Reading: 1 item
      Why would, or would not, the 2003 invasion of Iraq be a paradigm case of a just war?
    4. Further Reading: 10 items
      1. Fighting terror: ethical dilemmas - Alex J. Bellamy 2008

        Book Further Read Chapter 1

      2. Plato's Republic: a biography - Simon Blackburn 2006

        Book Further

      3. The Plato reader - T. D. J. Chappell, Plato c1996

        Book Further

      4. The Virtues of Thrasymachus - T. D. J. Chappell 1993

        Article Further

      5. Plato - R. M. Hare 1982

        Book Further

      6. In Defense of Thrasymachus - T. Y. Henderson 1970

        Article Further

      7. The Cambridge companion to Plato - Richard Kraut 1992

        Book Further Read: The Defence of Justice in Plato’s Republic

      8. The city and man - Leo Strauss 1978, c1964

        Book Further

  3. 02. Realism 1: Machiavelli, The Prince, Mercenaries, Transitional Wars 14 items
    1. Seminar Questions:

      • What is Machiavelli's advice to the prince on violence?
      • Why is Machiavelli so opposed to mercenaries?
      • What role does chapter 26 play in The Prince?

      Critically assess the link between natality and the nation.

      • Why is migration currently such a heated topic, and how, if at all, does it relate to war and/or violence?

    2. Key Reading: 2 items
      1. The prince - Niccolò Machiavelli, Tim Parks 2011

        Book Key Read: Introduction and Chapters V, VIII, X, XII, XIII, XIV, XVIII, XIX, XXV and XXVI. Copies in the library, but also available online at: https://www.gutenberg.org/files/1232/1232-h/1232-h.htm

      2. Stanford Encyclopedia entry on Political Realism in International Relations: http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/realism-intl-relations/

         

    3. Case Study Reading: 1 item
      Why is migration currently such a heated topic, and how, if at all, does it relate to war, terror and violence?
    4. Further Reading: 10 items
      1. Machiavelli and us - Louis Althusser, François Matheron 1999

        Book Further

      2. Be like the fox: Machiavelli's lifelong quest for freedom - Erica Benner 2017

        Book Further

      3. Machiavelli's ethics - Erica Benner c2009

        Book Further

      4. The political philosophy of Niccolo Machiavelli - Filippo Del Lucchese 2015

        Book Further Especially read Part II

      5. Prison notebooks - Antonio Gramsci, Joseph A. Buttigieg c1992

        Book Further

      6. Machiavelli - Quentin Skinner 1981

        Book Further

      7. Machiavelli - Maurizio Viroli 1998

        Book Further

      8. Civil Discord in Machiavelli’s Istorie Fiorentine - Gisela Bock

        Chapter Further

  4. 03. Realism 2: Hobbes, Human Nature and Warfare 15 items
    1. Seminar Questions:

      • Why, or why not, might life be "solitary, nasty, brutish, poor and short"?
      • Would a society without political authority revert to a war of all against all?
      • What are the repercussions of your response to this question in terms of the relations between citizens and warfare?
      • Does realism make a claim to neutrality and, if so, is it persuasive?
      • Is international relations the last refuge for realism?
      • What use is realism in an era of asymmetric warfare?
      • Are there any senses in which Al-Qaeda and neoconservatism are symmetrical to one another?

    2. Key Reading: 2 items
      1. Leviathan - Thomas Hobbes, C. B. Macpherson 1968

        Book Key Read: 'Of Man’, Chapters XIII, XIV, XVI, and ‘of Commonwealth’, Chapters XVIII, XXI, XXVII, IXXX, XXXI

      2. Six Principles of Political Realism - H.J. Morgenthau

        Chapter Key

    3. Case Study Reading: 1 item
      Is realism only applicable to balance of power politics?
    4. Further Reading: 11 items
      1. Lessons from a materialist thinker: Hobbesian reflections on ethics and politics - Samantha Frost c2008

        Book Further

      2. Hobbes and human nature - Arnold Wilfred Green c1993

        Book Further

      3. Discourses of power: from Hobbes to Foucault - Barry Hindess 1996

        Book Further

      4. Authority and the liberal tradition: from Hobbes to Rorty - Robert A. Heineman c1994

        Book Further

      5. Balancing in Neorealism - Joseph M. Parent, Sebastian Rosato

        Article 

      6. The Cambridge companion to Hobbes - Tom Sorell 1996

        Book Further

      7. The Cambridge companion to Hobbes's Leviathan - Patricia Springborg 2007

        Book Further

      8. Glory and the Law in Hobbes - Tracy B Strong 01/2017

        Article Further

      9. Hobbes - Richard Tuck 1989

        Book Further

      10. Stasis: civil war as a political paradigm - Giorgio Agamben 2015

        Book Further

  5. 04. Fanon and Decolonisation 16 items
    1. Seminar Questions:

      • In the context of colonial oppression is "violence a cleansing and unifying force" (Fanon)?
      • Can violence, in the context of oppression, heal the wounds that it inflicts (Sartre)?
      • Should citizens be pacifists? Should the colonised passively accept their lot?

    2. Key Reading: 2 items
    3. Case Study Reading: 1968 and the uses of violence 1 item
      1. Algeria: anger of the dispossessed - Martin Evans, John Phillips 2007 (electronic resource)

        Book Key Please read: pp.58-67

    4. Further Reading: 12 items
      1. Frantz Fanon: critical perspectives - Anthony Alessandrini 1999

        Book Further

      2. On Humanizing Abstractions - Mohammed A. Bamyeh 12/2010

        Article Further

      3. After Fanon c2002

        Book Further

      4. Introduction: Fanon’s The Wretched of the Earth 50 Years On - Vikki Bell 12/2010

        Article Further See also the other articles in the special section in this issue.

      5. Violence: thinking without banisters - Richard J. Bernstein 2013

        Book Further Read: Chapter 4

      6. Fanon, the Wretched and - William W Hansen, Umma Aliyu Musa 06/2013

        Article Further

      7. Torture Unveiled - Azzedine Haddour 12/2010

        Article Further

      8. Fanon for beginners - Deborah Wyrick 1998

        Book Further

  6. 05. Arendt and Violence 15 items
    1. Seminar questions:

      • Is Arendt's defence of the distinctions between 'war and politics' and 'violence and power' convincing?
      • What, according to Arendt, are power, violence, strength, authority and force?
      • Are the ballot and bullet inherently opposed, or are there situations in which they can reinforce one another?

    2. Key Reading: 2 items
      1. On revolution - Hannah Arendt 1990

        Book Key Read: Introduction

    3. Case Study Reading: 1968 and the uses of violence 1 item
      Are the ballot and bullet inherently opposed, or are there situations in which they can reinforce one another?
    4. Further Reading: 11 items
      1. The paradox of political violence - Mark Muhannad Ayyash 08/2013

        Article Further

      2. Violence: thinking without banisters - Richard J. Bernstein 2013

        Book Further Read: Chapter 3

      3. Violence and power - Keith Breen 05/2007

        Article Further

      4. Hannah Arendt's Critique of Violence - Christopher J. Finlay 05/2009

        Article Further

      5. The promise of the unforgiven - Alexander Keller Hirsch 01/2013

        Article Further

      6. Violence and Power, Politics and War - Patricia Owens

        Chapter Further Read: Especially Chapter 2

      7. Arendt - David Watson 1992

        Book Further

      8. The Cambridge companion to Hannah Arendt - Dana Richard Villa 2000

        Book Further

  7. 06: The State of Exception: twenty-first century war? 14 items
    1. Seminar questions:

      • Is politics defined by the 'friend-enemy' relation? What does your answer indicate about the relationship between war and politics?
      • How is the state of exception characterised, respectively, by Schmitt and Agamben?
      • Why has there been so much interest in the state of exception during the twenty-first century? Is this level of interest justifiable?
      • What does ISIS indicate about contemporary geopolitics and warfare?

    2. Key Reading: 2 items
      1. Political theology: four chapters on the concept of sovereignty - Carl Schmitt, George Schwab 2005 (electronic resource)

        Book Key Chapter 1 (if you can read chapter 2 too, which is short, that'd be helpful)

      2. State of exception - Giorgio Agamben 2005 (electronic resource)

        Book Key Chapter 1

    3. Case Study Reading: 1 item
    4. Further Reading: 10 items
      1. The Concept of the Political - Carl Schmitt, Carl Schmitt c2007 (electronic resource)

        Book Key Sections 4-7.

      2. Homo Sacer: sovereign power and bare life - Giorgio Agamben c1998

        Book Further

      3. Means without end: notes on politics - Giorgio Agamben, Vincenzo Binetti, Cesare Casarino c2000

        Book Further

      4. Violence: thinking without banisters - Richard J. Bernstein 2013

        Book Further Chapter 1

      5. Sovereign Power, Zones of Indistinction, and the Camp - Jenny Edkins 01/2000

        Article Further See also the other articles in this special issue.

      6. Sovereign lives: power in global politics - Jenny Edkins, Michael Shapiro, Véronique Pin-Fat 2004

        Book Further

  8. BLOCK II: The Experience of War in the 20th century (ZM) 119 items
    1. 07. War, State and Society 27 items
      Why is propaganda essential to modern warfare? Why do we grieve the lives of some people but not of others? Discuss the role of the state and media in building national consensus and a hostile imagination during wartime. What has, and/or hasn’t, changed since WWII?
      1. Required readings 3 items
      2. Further reference 24 items
        1. Fascist spectacle: the aesthetics of power in Mussolini's Italy - Simonetta Falasca-Zamponi 2000

          Book Recommended On order for library

        2. The War You Don't See

          Audio-visual document Recommended Excellent film about propaganda and the Iraq war.

        3. Media, state and nation: political violence and collective identities - Philip Schlesinger 1991

          Book Recommended

        4. The media at war - Susan L. Carruthers 2011

          Book Recommended

        5. Propaganda: the art of persuasion : World War II - Anthony Rhodes, Victor Margolin 1976

          Book Further

        6. Media and political violence - Hillel Nossek, Annabelle Sreberny, Prasun Sonwalkar c2007

          Book Further

        7. War and the media: reportage and propaganda, 1900-2003 - Mark Connelly, David Welch 2005

          Book 

        8. Weapons of mass dissemination: the propaganda of war - Skidmore College. Tang Teaching Museum and Art Gallery, Wolfsonian-Florida International University c2004

          Book Further

        9. War in the media age - A. Trevor Thrall c2000

          Book Further

        10. War, media, and propaganda: a global perspective - Yahya R. Kamalipour, Nancy Snow c2004

          Book Further

        11. Media, war and postmodernity - Phil Hammond 2007

          Book 

        12. Propaganda: the formation of men's attitudes - Jacques Ellul, Konrad Kellen, Jean Lerner 1973, c1965

          Book Further

        13. Media at war: the Iraq crisis - Howard Tumber, Jerry Palmer 2004

          Book Further

        14. The Ashgate research companion to modern warfare - George Kassimeris, John Buckley, Dawsonera c2010 (electronic resource)

          Book Further

        15. Discourse, war and terrorism - Adam Hodges, Chad Nilep c2007

          Book Further

    2. 08. Asymmetric conflict I: armed revolts, resistance and guerrilla wars 24 items
      In what historical circumstances was violence by non-state actors considered legitimate? What constitutes an asymmetric conflict? How have guerrilla tactics changed conditions of warfare? Is there a distinction to be made between “guerrilla fighters” and “terrorists”?
      1. Required Readings 7 items
        1. Selections from Selected Works of Mao Tse-Tung - Bruno Shaw

          Chapter Key Read: chapter Selections from Selected Works of Mao Tse-Tung. p. 205

        2. Guerrilla Warfare - A Method - Che Guevara

          Chapter Key Read: Che Guevara Guerrilla Method pp. 203-210.

        3. Jeremy Prestholdt. "Resurrecting Che: radicalism, the transnational imagination,and the politics of heroes"

           

        4. Guerrilla warfare - Ernesto Guevara 2003

          Book Recommended

        5. Terrorism : from popular struggle to media spectacle - Gerard Chaliand 1987

          Book Recommended On order for library

        6. Revolution in the revolution? - Régis Debray 2017

          Book Recommended

        7. Radicals, revolutionaries, and terrorists - Colin J. Beck 2015

          Book Recommended

      2. Further Reference 17 items
        1. Revolutionary violence: the theories - Anthony Miles Burton 1977

          Book 

        2. Che's guerilla war - Régis Debray, Rosemary Sheed 1975

          Book 

        3. Terrorism - Gérard Chaliand 1987

          Book Recommended

        4. Guerrillas and terrorists - Richard Clutterbuck 1977

          Book 

        5. Urban guerrilla warfare - Anthony James Joes c2007 (electronic resource)

          Book 

        6. Mao - Michael J. Lynch 2004

          Book 

        7. Revolutionary guerrilla warfare: theories, doctrines, and contexts - Sam C. Sarkesian c2010

          Book 

        8. Guerrilla warfare: a historical & critical study - Walter Laqueur c1998

          Book 

    3. 09. Women at war: female combatants 14 items
      How has women’s role in wartime changed in the 20th century? What challenges, if at all, do female combatants pose to a patriarchal social order? Are women with guns sexy, sexualized or emancipated? What does the experience of ex-combatants tell us?
      1. Required Readings 4 items
        1. Girls with guns: firearms, feminism, and militarism - France Winddance Twine 2013

          Book Key Please read: Chapter IV. Firearms feminism and Militarized Feminity Chapter VI. Double Jeopardy: Female Soldiers

        2. The women and war reader - Lois Ann Lorentzen, Jennifer E. Turpin c1998

          Book Recommended

      2. Corsets to camouflage: women and war - Kate Adie, Imperial War Museum 2004

        Book 

      3. Women and war - Jean Bethke Elshtain 1987

        Book 

      4. Women and war - Jenny Matthews c2003

        Book 

    4. 10. Asymmetric conflict II: From Counterinsurgency to Counterterrorism 16 items
      How has counterinsurgency been deployed as a tool for colonial domination and global power in modern times? Why has it entailed a hierarchical ordering of the human subject? Why is confinement central to tactics of counterinsurgency warfare?
      1. Required Readings 3 items
        1. Time in the shadows: confinement in counterinsurgencies - Laleh Khalili 2013 (electronic resource)

          Book Key Please read chapter 2: lessons and borrowings

        2. The Long War: Northern Ireland - John Newsinger

          Chapter Key Please Read Chapter 7: The Long War: Northern Ireland 1969-97

      2. The Vietnam War - David L. Anderson 2005

        Book Further

    5. 11. Technologies of killing and the death of the civilian 18 items
      Why is civilian immunity important in modern warfare? How has it been compromised? Has modern technology changed experiences of killing?
      1. Required Readings 5 items
        1. War 2.0 - Jai Galliott 07/2016

          Article Key

        2. The New Banality of Killing - Laurie Calhoun

          Chapter Recommended Read chapter 6: The New Banality of Killing

        3. Violent geographies: fear, terror, and political violence - Derek Gregory, Allan Richard Pred 2007 (electronic resource)

          Book 

      2. Airpower and Non-combatant Immunity: The Road to Dresden - Stephen Garrett

        Chapter Key Chapter 7, Garret, 'Air power and non-combatant immunity, the road to Dresden'.

      3. Sonic warfare: sound, affect, and the ecology of fear - Steve Goodman, Dawsonera 2009 (electronic resource)

        Book 

      4. Killing in war - Jeff McMahan 2009 (electronic resource)

        Book 

      5. Experiencing war - Christine Sylvester 2011

        Book 

      6. Violence: a modern obsession - Richard Bessel 2015

        Book 

      7. Civilian immunity in war - Igor Primoratz 2007

        Book 

      8. An intimate history of killing: face-to-face killing in twentieth-century warfare - Joanna Bourke 1999

        Book 

      9. Bombing civilians: a twentieth-century history - Toshiyuki Tanaka, Marilyn Blatt Young 2009

        Book Further

      10. Making peace with the past?: memories, trauma and the Irish troubles - Graham Dawson 2007

        Book Further

    6. 12. War as everyday spectacle 20 items
      Has the increased visual mediation of violence over the course of the 20th century changed conceptions and experiences of war? Are images useful evidence or sensational spectacle? Do we distinguish between fiction and reality when looking at images of war in our everyday lives? What’s at stake in war being an everyday media spectacle?
      1. Required Readings 5 items
        1. The Gulf War did not take place - Jean Baudrillard, Paul Patton 1995

          Book 

        2. Regarding the pain of others - Susan Sontag 2004

          Book 

        3. The visual culture reader - Nicholas Mirzoeff c2013

          Book 

      2. War: a history in photographs - Duncan Anderson 2003

        Book 

      3. Watching war - Jan Mieszkowski c2012

        Book 

      4. War and the media: reporting conflict 24/7 - Daya Kishan Thussu, Des Freedman, Dawsonera 2003 (electronic resource)

        Book 

      5. War and the media: reportage and propaganda, 1900-2003 - Mark Connelly, David Welch 2005

        Book 

      6. The image and the witness: trauma, memory and visual culture - Frances Guerin, Roger Hallas 2007

        Book 

      7. The cruel radiance: photography and political violence - Susie Linfield c2010

        Book 

      8. The Abu Ghraib effect - Stephen F. Eisenman 2007 (electronic resource)

        Book 

      9. Body horror: photojournalism, catastrophe and war - John Taylor 1998

        Book